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Supply Chain Management (13) / 供应链管理 (13) / サプライチェーンマネジメント (13)


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Supply Chain Management (13)

Understanding the Apparel Industry and its Supply Chain Management

The apparel industry is a vital part of our everyday lives, covering the 'clothing' aspect of the basic human needs: food, clothing, and shelter. This industry does not include custom-made clothing like suits tailored at a tailor's or traditional Japanese clothes made at a kimono shop. Instead, it focuses on ready-made products designed, produced, and sold to the general public. The industry includes not only fashion apparel but also apparel accessories.

The Structure of Apparel Companies and Industry

Apparel companies are responsible for the planning, production, and wholesale distribution of apparel products to retail stores. They usually outsource the production to cooperative factories, integrating backward into production and forward into retail. The role of a designer in an apparel company is crucial as they have to balance fashionability and cost. The industry consists of manufacturers, apparel companies involved in planning, distribution, and sales, and fashion retail companies. It operates under a division of labor system, with production occurring both domestically and overseas, involving retail companies and e-commerce.

Fashion Apparel Market

Key players in the fashion apparel market include fashion designers, fashion directors who conduct marketing research and strategic planning, and fashion coordinators. The four major fashion collections determine the fashion trends in style, color, pattern, and length. Riding the trend can boost sales, but there is also a risk of decline if the trend is not well received. This risk increases with the fashionability and luxury of the product. To mitigate this risk, companies adopt a 'postponement strategy,' gathering as much accurate information as possible before making decisions. They also adopt an 'accurate response' approach, dividing production into speculative production for low-risk items and responsive production for high-risk items. The lead time for responsive production can be shortened by collaborating and sharing information with the supply chain, strong management by apparel companies, forward integration by apparel companies, and cooperation and communication with contract factories.

SPA and Fast Fashion

Since the 1980s, there has been a growing trend towards integrating the supply chain, resulting in the rise of Specialty Store Retailer of Private Label Apparel (SPA) and fast fashion. SPA is a vertically integrated business model that includes companies like GAP and World. This model prioritizes efficiency and flexibility, involving exclusive or long-term contracts with production factories, expanding to multiple stores, and leveraging economies of scale. This approach has also been adopted by other industries, such as furniture (IKEA and Nitori). Fast fashion, a subset of SPA, focuses on low prices and speed, exemplified by companies like Uniqlo. It involves shortening cycle times, mass-producing a wide variety of products, global expansion (both production and stores), and minimizing defective inventory. Speed is prioritized over cost in logistics, and increasing the amount and speed of information in the supply chain is also crucial.

E-commerce and Omnichannel

The style of products is changing with the rise of e-commerce. Some consumers prefer the convenience and affordability of online shopping, while others prefer premium and thorough search consumption in physical stores. Although the proportion of online purchases is increasing, more than half of the purchases are still made in stores, highlighting the continued importance of physical stores, not only for apparel products. Omnichannel is the integration of multiple channels, including traditional single-channel, independent multi-channel, multiple contact points within a brand in cross-channel, and integrated multiple channels in omnichannel.


The apparel industry and its supply chain management are complex and multifaceted, involving various players and strategies. Understanding the different aspects of the industry, from the roles of apparel companies and designers to the strategies adopted to mitigate risks and maximize efficiency, is crucial for success in this ever-evolving market. With the rise of e-commerce and the importance of integrating multiple channels, adopting an omnichannel approach will be key to thriving in the modern apparel industry.


供应链管理 (13)


服装业是我们日常生活的重要组成部分,涵盖了人类基本需求中的 "衣 "的方面:吃、穿和住。该行业不包括定制服装,如裁缝店定制的西装或和服店制作的传统日本服装。相反,它侧重于设计、生产和销售给大众的现成产品。该行业不仅包括时尚服装,还包括服装配件。




时尚服装市场的主要参与者包括时尚设计师、负责市场研究和战略规划的时尚总监以及时尚协调员。四大时装系列决定了款式、颜色、图案和长度的时尚趋势。顺应潮流可以促进销售,但如果潮流不被看好,也会有下滑的风险。这种风险随着产品的时尚性和奢侈性而增加。为了降低这种风险,公司采取了 "推迟战略",在做出决定之前尽可能多地收集准确信息。他们还采取 "准确应对 "的方法,将生产分为低风险产品的投机性生产和高风险产品的应对性生产。通过与供应链的合作和信息共享、服装公司的强势管理、服装公司的前瞻性整合以及与合同工厂的合作与沟通,可以缩短响应式生产的准备时间。

SPA 和快速时尚

自 20 世纪 80 年代以来,整合供应链的趋势日益明显,导致自有品牌服装专卖店零售商(SPA)和快速时尚的兴起。SPA 是一种垂直整合的商业模式,包括 GAP 和 World 等公司。这种模式将效率和灵活性放在首位,涉及与生产工厂签订独家或长期合同、向多家商店扩张以及利用规模经济。其他行业也采用了这种模式,如家具行业(宜家和 Nitori)。快速时尚是 SPA 的一个分支,以优衣库等公司为代表,注重低价和速度。它包括缩短周期时间、大量生产各种产品、全球扩张(包括生产和店铺)以及尽量减少不良库存。在物流过程中,速度优先于成本,提高供应链中信息的数量和速度也至关重要。






サプライチェーンマネジメント (13)

















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